Solely anar (fountain crackers) and phuljhadi (sparklers) can be found,” says Janki Das, a firecracker vendor to a boy and his father at Previous Delhi’s Sadar Bazaar. In entrance of the store, a cardboard discover reads: “We aren’t promoting banned firecrackers”.

“What about chakri (wheelers), bombs, rockets and ladi (garland crackers)?” asks the boy. “No. These [fountains and sparklers] are the one inexperienced crackers obtainable out there. You may verify different outlets too,” says Das wryly. The boy picks a pack every and walks away, trying disillusioned.

It’s no extra enterprise as standard for cracker retailers on the market close to Jama Masjid forward of Diwali. Barely a handful of outlets could be seen promoting crackers.


“Earlier, we used to inventory no less than 200 varieties [of conventional crackers]. Now we now have simply two. Gross sales are lower than 20% in comparison with final 12 months. Many have moved to promoting ornamental objects and lights. Typically, even youngsters will not be eager to purchase crackers.

They are saying their faculties have instructed them about their dangerous results,” says one other service provider, not desirous to be recognized.

The cracker business, pegged at Rs 1,800 crore every year, is prone to run into losses this 12 months, in accordance with estimates.

The Alchemists

It has been a 12 months since Supreme Court docket banned typical crackers to curb air pollution.

Within the meantime, to fulfill the demand for crackers, eight government-run laboratories got here up with eight eco-friendly options, additionally dubbed as “inexperienced crackers”, and gave manufacturing licences to firework makers. The varieties embody sound-emitting crackers, fountains, pencils, wheelers and sparklers.

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“To make inexperienced crackers, typical formulations based mostly on barium nitrate had been discontinued and new formulations with potassium nitrate as an oxidant had been developed.


These crackers produces 30% much less particulate matter and sound, says Rakesh Kumar, director of Nationwide Environmental Engineering Analysis Institute (NEERI), a Council for Scientific and Industrial Analysis-run lab in Nagpur that led the venture. The scientists say the brand new oxidant within the crackers produce mud suppressants and sorbents that cut back emission and sound.

These crackers carry a emblem and a QR code to distinguish them from typical crackers. Scan the code and you’ll know which chemical compounds make up the cracker. “After the Supreme Court docket ban, there was a risk of closure of the fireworks business. Nevertheless, science has once more come to the rescue and thousands and thousands of jobs have been saved,” says Union Well being and Science & Know-how Minister Harsh Vardhan.

Temper of the Market

However new chemical system seems to have pushed up the costs of the crackers, say merchants. “Inexperienced crackers are 30-50% costlier than typical ones. That is one more reason behind low gross sales,” says Das, the service provider in Previous Delhi. There may be additionally a provide drawback, regardless of authorities’s claims that a number of kinds of crackers based mostly on the brand new formulations had been available. “We had been anticipating no less than seven to eight varieties. Now we have solely two,” says Pranjal Gupta, who too was seeking to purchase crackers at Sadar Bazaar.

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Greater than 2,600 km away in Sivakasi — the city that makes practically 95% of the nation’s crackers — factories turned lively solely in Might after observing a six-month strike to protest in opposition to the Supreme Court docket ban. After the factories reopened, employees had been skilled in batches to make inexperienced crackers. However the factories had been quickly in need of fingers since many employees had migrated to different locations throughout the strike.

“That is peak season however there’s a 30 to 40% labour scarcity. Because of the strike, folks right here have additionally began illegally making dangerous crackers at dwelling. I really feel this home-made cracker manufacturing have to be 30% of the overall manufacturing this 12 months. For the reason that quantity of inexperienced crackers is low as a result of new formulations, share of unlawful crackers have risen,” says a registered inexperienced crackers maker in Sivakasi, who didn’t need to be named.

Merchants in Sivakasi additionally attributed the rise within the provide of poisonous typical crackers to factories disposing off final 12 months’s inventory at the same time as they make the restricted forms of inexperienced crackers.


There have been 1,600 licenced fireworks items within the nation as of final 12 months. Of them, practically 350 fireworks producers had been mentioned to have obtained licences to make inexperienced crackers however merchants declare the precise quantity could also be much less. “The ban hit half of our enterprise. We couldn’t mass produce inexperienced crackers this 12 months because of lack of time. These crackers require a number of checks,” says Balaji TK, director at Sree Balaji Fireworks.

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However P Ganesan, president of Tamil Nadu Fireworks and Amorces Producers’ Affiliation, is hopeful. “We count on extra enterprise within the coming days because the crackers are eco-friendly. We’re additionally working to restrict the cracker noise stage to 90 decibels from 120 decibels now.”

The cracker provide scenario too will enhance by subsequent 12 months, he says. “This 12 months we couldn’t fulfil the demand however we must always be capable to resume full provide of all 200 varieties for subsequent Diwali.”.