ET’s month-long reporting means that the ByteDance-owned quick video app, TikTok, does pay a few of its content material creators below sure circumstances. This raises the difficulty, given India’s IT legal guidelines, of the world’s most valued startup probably being in violation of guidelines. ET has reviewed some TikTok contracts with creators and ship the app questions earlier than publishing this story. ByteDance’s solutions are integrated.

Bengaluru/Mumbai: Following the controversy over TikTok claiming copyright over a few of the content material posted on its platform, the Chinese language app, in its reply to the questions posed by the Ministry of Electronics and Data Know-how (Meity), mentioned as per business practices, it “doesn’t pay creators to create content material, nor does it intervene with or management the creation of content material on the platform.”

Nonetheless, within the very subsequent sentence, it mentioned it engages with “sure customers who can promote the platform and educate different customers on tips on how to generate essentially the most worth of the instruments obtainable on the platform.” ET has reviewed TikTok’s responses to Meity. Meity officers who spoke off document instructed ET that ministry officers mentioned the obvious contradiction in TikTok’s responses.

A number of paperwork, together with previous and present creator contracts, reviewed by ET reveal that TikTok not solely pays creators to add content material on its platform but in addition incentivizes them to make it “viral” by cross-posting it on different main social media platforms, by means of a “Forwarding Clips Dedication”, as acknowledged in these contracts.


These contracts might characteristic funds starting from $100 to $200 to as excessive as $1750 relying upon the recognition of the creator, with a minimal dedication of X variety of “unique clips” (ranging between 10-30) each “time period month”, together with 5 cross-posts to Instagram, with the TikTok brand or watermark.

TikTok has 4 efficiency tiers for these creators. Whereas its top-tier creator might earn as excessive as $1750, tier 2, three and four creators are eligible to earn $1150, $550 and $250 respectively. This classification, in response to the paperwork, is finished in response to “rating rankings”, an inner metric which counts “complete video views of Expertise of the month.”

Not Cash for All Creators

These contracts are usually not signed with each creator of TikTok, however with a really small variety of influential creators, who’re a part of its over 200 million month-to-month lively consumer base in India. ByteDance doesn’t disclose these numbers or the way it works with creators, however some folks acquainted with the matter instructed ET that this quantity could possibly be within the “1000’s”, or the highest 10 per cent of TikTok creators in India. ET reached out to Qyuki, one of many businesses that manages a few of the prime TikTok creators. Qyuki declined to remark.

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This follow would appear to be shared by different Chinese language quick video platforms, whose enterprise mannequin relies on creators making viral movies, and the consumer spending time consuming them. TikTok rival owned by Singapore-based Bigo Know-how, “pays creators anyplace between $80-$150, ought to his/her video turn into fashionable on the platform,” in response to a preferred creator based mostly in a South Indian state.

“In fact, they pay creators.” says an individual acquainted with how influencer advertising works in India. “No creator works totally free.” This phenomenon can be not unique to India, with TikTok allegedly paying “greater than $1 million to an influencer to run a single video”, in response to a Wall Avenue Journal report in June.


ByteDance defends these practices as being a part of what it calls “normal advertising practices”. This, the corporate mentioned in its responses to ET’s detailed questions on funds to creators, is finished “to advertise utilization of the platform, make the platform extra vibrant and encourage full realization of the potential of the platform.” Different questions ET requested ByteDance have been about modes of funds, contractual obligations, and alleged editorial management.

ByteDance additionally mentioned: “This helps in sharing with all different TikTok customers…a gentle stream of fashionable content material and (in) popularizing using the platform. Such customers select to publish their content material on our platform by themselves.” The corporate insists that it’s merely “a passive host or an enabler”, and these practices don’t imply that ByteDance is a intermediary, nor does it symbolize “a manifestation of editorial management”.

However some legal professionals who observe the house have a special opinion. “If an organization units targets for its creators to fulfill, and particularly if it commissions work from them, such a contract could possibly be a piece for rent. However the legislation round influencers is but to be developed in India,” mentioned Nehaa Chaudhari, public coverage lead at Ikigai Regulation.

TikTok’s PayPals

ByteDance pays creators by way of a PayPal account, which these within the creator ecosystem say is “normal follow” for Chinese language firms. In some contracts, as an illustration, a sum of $200, which is equal to 40,000 “diamonds” is transferred to the creator’s “TikTok Pockets”. These “diamonds” kind TikTok’s digital in-app forex, which its customers first obtain of their pockets, and later redeem upon trade to native forex (Indian rupees).

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ByteDance, in its reply to ET, refused to touch upon “diamonds” whereas saying that it doesn’t “share proprietary enterprise data.”

Creators on TikTok may earn cash by way of live-streams, the place customers usually broadcast fashionable codecs equivalent to “unboxing.” Customers usually buy these diamonds or cash, and reward creators in the course of the broadcast. The worth for these cash on the consumer’s finish, a creator mentioned, ranged from Rs 100 for 80 cash. For a creator, it’s attainable to earn at the very least $120 if s/he did a stay stream each Sunday for two hours.

“On the finish of the month the corporate provides to those diamonds based mostly on the quantity talked about within the contract,” mentioned a creator on a situation of anonymity. One other individual conscious of how the creator business features added, “Even on this conversion of diamonds to cash, who’s enabling it? In fact, TikTok is taking part in the position of a convertor.”

Editorial management? “Not likely”

In earlier variations of contracts reviewed by ET, going again to the time when ByteDance acquired lip-syncing quick video app (and rebranded it TikTok), the corporate was paying as a lot as $1000 for 30 movies with a requirement of 10 such movies to be made in accordance with 12 pre-decided hashtags equivalent to #FitnessIndia, #OOTDIndia (Outfit of the Day India), #MyDanceSquad, #MyTalentInSports, amongst others. It’s unclear if ByteDance continues the follow of pre-deciding hashtags for creators to make movies for.

“We don’t compensate creators in any method to create any particular kind of content material and don’t train any editorial management over the content material created on our platform,” mentioned a ByteDance spokesperson. It additionally added that these hashtags have been mere suggestions, and suggestions didn’t represent editorial management.

ET additionally reviewed paperwork the place sure creators didn’t receives a commission or have been paid decreased quantities once they did not use hashtags or did not cross-post content material on different platforms, as agreed within the “assertion of labor”. This, the corporate defined in an e-mail seen by ET, was as a result of the creator didn’t “garner as many views because the others within the programme”.

Letter Vs Spirit of Regulation

Pinaki Misra, the member of parliament from Odisha’s Biju Janata Dal instructed ET, “Stories and analysis on the alleged doubtful enterprise practices and technique employed by Bytedance/Tiktok have been widespread. Now the data that the platform pays influencers to create content material … and in addition influencing younger minds is most annoying.” Misra, MP from Puri, added, “The platform has additionally been frequently flagged for hate speech and casteist content material. Alternatively it claims it’s purely an middleman to folks within the authorities.”

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“It isn’t in opposition to the legislation, however it’s in opposition to the spirit of the middleman secure harbour guidelines,” mentioned a New Delhi-based know-how lawyer on a situation of anonymity. “What TikTok (or again then) is doing by giving hashtags a month or perhaps a 12 months upfront is the flip-side of proactively monitoring and flattening of content material. That is in actual fact, proactive selling content material that you just determine ought to be fashionable. This isn’t how intermediaries are alleged to work,” the lawyer added.

Eshika Phadke, founding father of Inflawence, a Mumbai-based authorized danger advisory which specialises in influencer advertising agreed. “Even with the requirement of ten of the clips having to be centred round a specific hashtag, one might argue that they’re taking part in no half within the precise content material,” mentioned Phadke however added, “The hashtags are broad, and almost all content material would fall below one among them anyway. ByteDance is simply dictating the hashtag that must be used. The extra regarding half is in regards to the ten clips having to be in accordance with “particular necessities to be designated by”

The New Delhi-based lawyer additionally added that TikTok has been cautious whereas handing out these contracts so it isn’t held chargeable for breaking the legislation. “It doesn’t cross the road and doesn’t train editorial management, however by paying them and giving path, it does violate the spirit of the legislation,” the lawyer mentioned.

In one other occasion of clips depicting content material of a graphic nature, say a motorbike stunt, TikTok often serves a warning earlier than the video. Upon obtain, the mentioned video doesn’t carry the emblem or the watermark of TikTok, a component which usually seems on all its movies. Some within the business really feel that this might imply “editorial management” on condition that they’ve precise information of the video.

ByteDance, nonetheless, replied that its logos and watermark are just for promotional functions, and don’t have anything to do with the content material or how they’re vetted and that they weren’t edited. The remit of its AI and human reviewers, it added, was to solely take a look at the content material from the lens of its neighborhood pointers.